This page provides the R code for reproducing the results of the paper Seymer, A., & Weichbold, M. (2018). Social Inequalities and the Effects of Incentives on Survey Participation: A Recruitment Experiment. Austrian Journal of Political Science, 47(2), 5–20.

The data can be obtain from PUMA or AUSSDA. Please consult the PUMA website for details ( or visit the Dataverse of AUSSDA (

PUMA provides a standard SPSS file (e.g. PUMA.sav), which can be imported into R:

WaveOne <- read.spss(PUMA.sav,

As my work was based on an early version of the data file, the data wasn’t cleaned yet. Probably, the current file will noch contain cases, but in case of deviating numbers please check, if the followin code solves the issue. It basically eliminates 41 cases due to inconsistencies with dates during the online survey.

WaveOne_full <- WaveOne
WaveOne <- WaveOne %>%
  filter(datenotok != levels(WaveOne$datenotok)[2])

Please send me an email, if you have any questions.